Department of Radiology & Imaging Sciences

Radiology is the compelling image (imaging science) of an achievable medical science future.

The continuous and unparallel development of imaging technology – components of x ray / CT / USG / MRI systems, computers / super computers , x ray tubes, ultra sound probes / crystals, detectors, magnets, RF systems, isotropic volume data with better resolution/voxels, graphics, storage, thin slice volume data reconstruction, post processing and instant advanced visualization algorithms and post processing / 3D cinematic rendering techniques, with increasing image quality, data explosion, speed and accuracy of newer software are developed to study functionality of organ in few seconds or instantly, AI/machine learning have changed the way imaging is done now and will be ever changing, in future also. Now case images can be seen instantly and transferred instantly to RIS/HIS/PACS anywhere in the world. 3D printing is newer mode of printing.

Yes, the imaging world will be ever changing in this evolutionary world of technology.

The Science and Applications of Medical Imaging:

  • What is Diagnostic Medical Imaging?
    RADIOLOGY /DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING/IMAGING SCIENCE, Also CALLED MEDICAL IMAGING .the use of electromagnetic / xry radiation and certain other technologies to produce images of internal structures of the body for the purpose of accurate diagnosis. It transmission/emission/optical imaging. Diagnostic imaging is roughly equivalent to radiology, the branch of medicine that uses radiation to diagnose and treat diseases. However, other technologies—including ultrasound, which employs sound waves to visualize tissues, and endoscopy and similar methods in which a flexible optical instrument is equipped with a camera for imaging—may also be used.
  • How does Medical Imaging work?
    Diagnostic medical imaging relies on the use of ‘invisible’ waves, such as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, or sound waves. Learning about these different types of waves help us to understand what is medical imaging science all about. The waves typically originate from a source placed on one side of the body, travel through the body (and through the region of interest), and hit a detector that is placed on the other side of the body. The waves are absorbed to varying degrees by different body tissues. This way the detector develops an image that is composed of ‘shadows’ of various body tissues. Earlier forms of medical imaging, such as radiographs, used a photodetector plate, which required film processing prior to visualization. Advanced medical imaging today allows images to be directly captured through a detecting camera and the images can be viewed digitally on a monitor.
  • What is Medical Imaging used for?
    Although a large part of medical imaging is performed mainly for diagnostic reasons, it has several other applications as well. A few of the most common applications of medical imaging are described below:
    Spot diagnosis: As the name suggests, this is the most common application of diagnostic medical imaging. An image can tell us, at a glance, what exactly is wrong with the patient. Plain radiographs and CTs help detect fractures, cysts, tumors, and anomalies of the bone.
    Monitoring disease progression: Diagnostic medical imaging is often used to determine disease stage and progression. In a patient with cancer, a contrast-enhanced CT or an MRI can be used to determine the exact stage of disease, while PET scans can detect any metastases. SPECT, a type of bone scan, has been found useful to monitor progression in Parkinson’s disease.
    Treatment planning: Medical imaging also aids in treatment planning by allowing surgeons to determine the size of a lesion and hence the extent of surgery beforehand. Surgeons can perform virtual surgery using medical imaging technology, either directly in the software, or after importing and creating stereolithographic models.
    Evaluating the efficacy of treatment: PET scans are often used in cancer patients undergoing treatment to check if the treatment regimen has been effective in diminishing the size of the tumor. Surgeons also use medical imaging during a surgical procedure to check if bones have been aligned properly or if implants have been placed in their proper position. Imaging can be done to assess long-term efficacy of treatment procedures. For instance, volumetric analysis of orbital contents is often performed six months after the procedure to check if orbital reduction and fixation after trauma was performed accurately.
    Age-related calculations: Age can often be determined by assessing growth of internal body structures. For instance, fetal age and maternal gestational age are often determined through an ultrasound. Certain radiographs, such as hand-wrist and dental radiographs, are widely used to calculate a patient’s age if it is unknown or necessary for legal purposes.
  • Spine MRI:
    A Spine MRI will diagnose the problems with the discs and nerves of the spine for conditions such as spinal stenosis, disc bulges, and spinal tumours.
  • Abdomen and Pelvis MRI scan:
    Abdomen and Pelvis MRI scans can find problems in the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, and bladder. They can be used to find tumors, bleeding, infection, and blockage if any. In women, MRI scans can look at the uterus and ovaries. In men, they can look at the prostate.
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA):
    MRA is a type of MRI scan. Generally, a Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is an MRI scan which is used to observe the blood vessels and the flow of blood through the blood vessels. MRA scans can diagnose the problems of the arteries and veins, such as an aneurysm, a blocked blood vessel or dissection (the torn lining of a blood vessel). Contrast material may be used to see the blood vessels more clearly.

Preparing for MRI Scan:

It’s good to inform your MRI technician / doctor
  • If you are allergic to any of the medicines. The contrast material will not contain iodine. If you know that you are allergic to the contrast material, tell your doctor before having the test.
  • If you have a health issue such as BP, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, or kidney problems.
  • If you are a pregnant.
  • If you have any metal implanted in your body. This helps the doctor to know if the test is safe or not. Inform if you have coronary artery stent, pacemaker, ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator) or a metal heart valve.
  • Metal pins, clips or metal parts in your body including artificial limbs and dental braces.
  • Any other implanted medical device such as a medicine infusion pump or a cochlear implant.
  • Cosmetic metal implants such as in your ears or tattooed eyeliner.
  • If you have undergone any recent surgery on a blood vessel. In some cases, you may not be able to have the MRI test.
  • Have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place. An IUD may prevent you from having the MRI test done.
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